Why on earth should I be restricted to citing no more than three web-based sources? That would be insane. No academic researcher follows rules like this. So, we should agree that these requirements, though well-intentioned, are a very poor guideline for learning or implementing good research and citation practices.
I pray that any instructor you have will recognize the problems with these rules and will approve any reasonable use of web-based references in your essay. It has no inline citations yet, and no reference list. There are a couple of ways you can approach this. One way is to just go through the essay and tag the places where you think a reference citation is needed.
I did that on this version. You can do it anyway you want. Here in Scrivener I just highlighted the period at the end of a sentence and used the comment tool to add a comment with a note on what sources I think are relevant. I have a separate module on the Academy site for citing sources and avoiding plagiarism. Here I can add a citation to a reference on student loan debt for art students that I remember encountering during my research. Then you can drop in the citations fairly easily just by looking up your reference list.
In APA style you organize references alphabetically by last name. In my list I have a lot of web-based references, including a lot of references to YouTube videos that show professional artists commenting on their art school experience and giving advice to aspiring artists. This is a good example of why that restriction to no more than three web-based sources is ridiculous. Whether a source is an appropriate or inappropriate reference will depend on the subject matter and the context, and this is a good example of that.
If the same author has multiple references, the earlier publications come first. In APA style you cite by giving the author and the date of publication in brackets. For multiple citations, like in this first paragraph, you order them alphabetically and separate them with a semi-colon. These formatting details are documented in the style guide. This is part of what it means to be literate in the conventions of academic writing.
Someone asked me the other day if I was sure that handing in this essay would get me an A for the essay assignment for this course. But I can say this much. You have to understand that the bar that is set by average student writing performance is really quite low. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper.
The purpose of this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top.
Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source.
All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented. In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized.
If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized.
All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one.
In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data.
However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table.
If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables All tables should be numbered e. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3. Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized except and, in, of, with, etc.
Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table.
According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to keep the table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes.
You should use a font that is large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper.
Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. This means that the paragraphs follow a logical order like the chapters in a novel. Evidence suggests psychoanalytic therapy works best if the client is motivated and has a positive attitude. Remember to answer the essay question. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. Why reference?
Each paragraph in your essay should contribute to answering the essay question. A format for referencing web pages is given below. Remember to answer the essay question.
Related content. Explain how and why the point is relevant. The introduction, main body and conclusion should all be linked. There are a few things we need to talk about here. If you comment on what the studies shows, and what it supports and challenges about the theory in question, this shows evaluation.
The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Be clear why each point is is relevant to the argument. If you comment on what the studies shows, and what it supports and challenges about the theory in question, this shows evaluation. An alternative format is shown in the example below. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. For example, "Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance" is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about.
When to use references Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. Every college has a resource like this, either in the form of a document like this or a dedicated website.
When you are writing an evaluation paragraph use the PEC system.
A dominantly male perspective is known as an androcentric bias. University of Leicester.
Have a global structure with themes arranged in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same. I have a separate module on the Academy site for citing sources and avoiding plagiarism.
Introductions are very important as first impressions count and they can create a halo effect in the mind of the lecturer grading your essay. Have a global structure with themes arranged in a way that allows for a logical sequence of ideas.
One way is to just go through the essay and tag the places where you think a reference citation is needed. Formatting references If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. Does the theory or study being discussed judge other cultures by Western standards? Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. Gash, S.