Density functional theory DFT calculations show that reduction reactions tend to happen more along Mo-Mo grain boundaries than point defects in lattice [ 45 ], and the Mo-Mo grain boundaries are more abundant in low-temperature prepared defect-rich hybrids. The other peak at 0. S2 , the annealing process could effectively remove the PPy These results revealed that the PPy template effectively inhibited the aggregation of MoS2 during hydrothermal synthesis process.
Enhanced HER performance was demonstrated. It also displayed long outstanding electrochemical stability for the practical application. Results The one-step hydrothermal synthesis method is schematically illustrated in Fig. S2 , the annealing process could effectively remove the PPy Generally, three strategies are employed to improve the catalytic properties of MoS2. Our study provides a facile and cost-effective method for synthesis of 3D MoS2 with advanced HER performances, which has great potential for larger-scale production and practical industrial applications.
However, when the seed of crystallization changes to graphene, the crystallization condition of MoS2 is not well understood, and thus further understanding of the crystallization condition is essential to optimize the material catalytic activity. The peak positions of MG are close to those of MG, which can be explained by the broad peaks with more lattice defects, and the loosely organized structure plays a more important role. S6a was resulted from carbonization remnants of PPy during the annealing process.
Different carbon materials [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ], including carbon nanotubes [ 18 ] and graphene [ 19 , 20 ], are used to integrate with MoS2 and it proves to be in effect. Comparing with the MoS2 samples, an obvious peak in To assemble the cell, the prepared counter electrodes and photoanodes were sealed with a commercial thermoplastic sealing film, and then a commercial electrolyte was injected into the cell. The excellent mechanical behavior was beneficial from the rich porosity of the whole structure and the interconnection of graphene layers, showing great potential as a binder-free electrode. The MoS2 electrode showed plateaus at 2. Full size image As shown in Fig.
It is highly desirable to develop a facile and straightforward approach to fabricate cost-effective MoS2-based catalysts with high HER activity. Although reasonable progresses have been achieved in fabrication of 3D structure, it still suffers from some deficiencies such as complicated operation with multiple steps and inefficient catalytic activity. By adjusting the concentration of the PPy, both the morphology and the defects can be controllably engineered. However, a significantly lower crystal quality leads to poorer charge transfer and lower catalytic performance [ 17 , 42 ]. However, the high cost and rare reserve are still hinder its practical application 4. Efficient alternatives are under urgent need.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. After assembly, the cell was aged 24 h in the glove box for further measurements. It is well known that poor intrinsic conductivity limits the overall electrocatalytic performance of pure MoS2 [ 16 , 17 ] and that the reactivity of pure graphene is relatively weak [ 18 , 19 , 20 ].