Many of the roads surrounding the volcano were shut down. The ash contaminated local water supplies. Farmers near the volcano were warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources, as high concentrations of fluoride from the ash mixed with river water can have deadly effects, particularly in sheep. Many kinds of measurements are carried out by the IMO and other agencies that provide valuable information used to warn of impending danger, for example potential eruptions and floods.
The IMO's weather radar on the southwest tip of the country showed the height of the ash plume, which is important for calculating the distribution of the ash.
The London office gave information on ash which is based on information from the Icelandic Met Office. This event was therefore tracked and prepared for, and the ash cloud was tracked by satellite by many nations. In addition, all of the countries in Europe have bodies which determine the safety of conditions to fly in. This means that many of the countries have great capacity to cope in terms of making predictions and preparing alternatives for companies and people stuck by the restrictions on air travel.
In addition, the EU has other transport mechanisms such as extensive road and motorway networks, rail networks including the Channel tunnel and boat networks which were particularly important for the transportation of food goods etc. Finally, in legal and insurance terms the EU is well prepared. Travelers stuck by the ash cloud were entitled to legal compensation from their airlines and their airlines were also legally responsible for the well-being of stranded passengers.
Finally, many companies had contingency plans in place for an emergency such as this, so could cope better, Tesco circumvented the ash cloud by flying Kenyan produce into Spain and then using road haulage for example.
The impact of the event social, economic, environmental , in the short and longer term Within Iceland many people were very lucky as the volcano is on the south coast and the wind carried the ash southeast towards Europe: away from the most inhabited areas of Iceland. Indeed, visibility was down to a few metres and local cattle farmers suffered. However, participant observations were conducted in the context of simulation exercises, which showed the patterns of communication upon which the network is constructed.
Information was sourced from stakeholders with a range of scientific, social, political and economic backgrounds. The lens of interpretation was not dismissive of the natural sciences but analysis is positioned from a sociological perspective.
The background of the researcher in using geographical and sociological frameworks, such as social constructivism Stirling, ; Bijker et al. However, the mixed methods approach provided the flexibility to account for these contrasts in positionality, understanding and focus Hesse-Biber, Semi-structured interviews semi-structured interviews were conducted and were targeted initially at personnel within the IMO, Icelandic Civil Protection, Isavia and University of Iceland UoI ; the IMO and UoI research and monitor volcanic activity, whereas the Civil Protection are more closely aligned with exchanging knowledge with the general public.
Interviews were conducted with the leaders or coordinators of these agencies, with questions designed to encourage interviewees to identify further stakeholders who they regularly communicate with, or who play a significant role in the monitoring or response process. Networking with these stakeholders helped explore connectivity. The close-knit communities of stakeholders made networking relatively problem-free, but replicating this method in less transparent networks would be challenging.
Problems regarding interviewee availability resulted in the need to carry out some interviews via Skype. A Dictaphone was used to record interviews; if the interviewee objected, then notes were taken in a field diary.
For anonymity, only the agency to which the interviewee belonged was referenced. Interview durations varied from twenty minutes to two hours, when the semi-structured format provoked in-depth discussion of evolving stakeholder connections.
The second part asked more open-ended questions, which probed interactions, mitigation partnerships, opinions on the use of social media, links to agencies in the UK, previous experiences of volcanic crises, and uses of monitoring or response equipment. The final part drew upon how the network and the position of the interviewee within it, was likely to evolve. Participant observation 27Three observations were conducted in Iceland, with a further two in the UK Table 4. This meant that it was a Fissue eruption at this point.
The first phase of eruption produced lava, with little explosive activity. Lava fountains erupted fluid magma, which quickly built several hills of bubble-filled lava rocks scoria along the vent. A lava flow spread northeast, spilling into Hrunagil Gully. In this volcano there were two or more discrete magmatic sources involved, with magma of different composition. With the help of prevailing winds and the jet stream, ash was carried southwards to Europe, meaning much of Iceland remained unaffected.
This closure expanded and continued for the upcoming 8 days, stranding 10 million passengers, which impacted European economies. This was particularly important for when the ash dispersed to near invisibility. A new pulse of ash was heading in too. Airspace was now closed in 20 countries.
Scientists were very concerned at the time of the eruption that this eruption could be a precursor or warning sign of a much larger eruption of the historically more active and dangerous Katla. A new pulse of ash was heading in too.
This allows the solid material beneath the crust to rise upwards, and reduces the amount of pressure on it, allowing it to melt and form magma.
Interview Information Sources Iceland. Expanding upon the role of technology, Stirling implies that merging scientists and the public through co-production influences the cultivation of socio-technical knowledge. The vent for the volcano is 1. The research provides a processual narrative for its case study, documenting and evaluating both network and stakeholder changes. By the end of April explosive activity had virtually ended, with a weak plume largely made up of steam, but flowing lava had advanced a few kilometres northwards from the crater. The absence of a volumetric component is surprising in the case of a large volcanic earthquake that cannot be explained by shear slip on a planar fault.
This interaction of two different types of volcanism has created the island of Iceland, which is made up of many active volcanoes. Of course, this study would have been difficult to conduct during a crisis as those involved would likely have been too busy to contribute. How advances in monitoring and response technology between volcanic events have reshaped channels of communication? Fissure-fed lava flows occur on both the E and W flanks of the volcano, but are more prominent on the W side.
There was a huge increase in passenger numbers on Eurostar. See an airplane in the photo for scale. Other roads were bulldozed to allow flash flood water to reach the sea. Many kinds of measurements are carried out by the IMO and other agencies that provide valuable information used to warn of impending danger, for example potential eruptions and floods. A lava flow spread northeast, spilling into Hrunagil Gully.
Each observation involved shadowing stakeholders and noting their interactions and uses of technology. This meant that it was a Fissue eruption at this point. Figure 4. In Iceland this is really easy since all our seismometers are deployed in a barren, volcanic desert. We also often move seismometers to more useful places for the next years research plans.
The seismometers will record the tiny movements of the ground, sampling the motion up to times per second.
Table 2. The Bardarbunga earthquake is shown with the white star. Seismic networks provide the best illustration as configurations of algorithms and wireless sensors dictate the positioning of data nodes Pereira et al.
In so doing, it contrasts with previous academic critiques of management practices that often disproportionately focus upon the negative elements of stakeholder contestation, risk perception, and conflicts with science. The close-knit communities of stakeholders made networking relatively problem-free, but replicating this method in less transparent networks would be challenging. In Iceland, this ongoing ridge volcanism interact s with a mantle plume, which brings magma to the surface from deep within the Earth. With the help of prevailing winds and the jet stream, ash was carried southwards to Europe, meaning much of Iceland remained unaffected. Research aims and intentions 2Motivation for conducting this research emerged from both a desire to bridge the gap between social science and hazard management, and the need to shed light upon how technology sociologically transforms hazard and risk networks.
Ash from the eruption deposited dissolved iron into the North Atlantic, triggering a phytoplankton bloom as phytoplankton production was limited by the availability of dissolved iron which is essential for plant growth. Secondly, it aimed to account for the impact of technical innovation and evaluate the extent to which this has affected patterns of communication between volcanic events. The eruption of the volcano — which lies partly under the small Icelandic ice cap of Eyjafjallajohull translated as mountain glacier — had started off in a low key manner with the appearance of fissues near a mountain pass next to the glacier, together with some lava fountaining. Some seismometers stream the data live via satellite connections, but this generally requires more power than a few solar panels and batteries can provide.
If you think trying to remember how to spell it is difficult, try pronouncing it!!! It destroyed much of the main Route 1 road. That means that the countries affected by this hazard responded by themselves or collectively, and had the capacity to do so.