The fundamental feature of idealism is that it puts ideas before matter meaning thereby that human ideas are the starting point for understanding the development of men and society and not matter.
By matter, we mean the material surroundings of men etcetera. It will be elaborated in detail later on in the discussion of materialism. And to meet these needs, he does labor and it leads to the evolution of men and society. So it is the idea and not the matter which is the primary factor responsible for the development of human ideas on the whole. And also the Mohsin , 5 ideas cannot be related to their existence out there in the real world which leads us to the second important feature of idealism.
The second feature of idealism is that it talks about ideas only in abstraction and does not talk about the ideas out there in the real world. It may be seen as the point of departure of materialism from idealism, that is, the fundamental criticism leveled against idealism is that it operates on the abstract premises.
The ideas which provide the basis of interpretation cannot be tested or verified. Idealism does not negate the material factors per se but it emphasizes that there is always a higher world before the material world. So there is a concept of duality inherent in idealism. The duality principle means that the idealists assume the existence of an ideal, higher world which exists prior to the material world.
And the ideas are only in abstract. It may also be put this way that the idealist school of thought focuses on the abstraction of ideas which they create in their minds. Materialists would say that these ideas are not in isolation, that is, they begin with the material world out there. However, the concept of the abstraction of ideas can be linked to the first characteristic, that is, it is the idea before matter which characterizes idealism.
Idealism emphasizes that it is the idea in abstraction that suffices for the development of human history and the development of society. It leads us to the third important characteristic of idealism. The third important feature of idealism is that it holds a conception of a fundamental principle behind evolution.
According to this conception, the driving force behind the development of humans for instance is an abstract fundamental idea which is forceful enough that it suffices for the development of human society and the world of ideas. One point which needs to be emphasized here is that the principle of abstraction of ideas which stands in contrast with the materialist conception of real premises is similar to the religious approach.
He criticized that idealism supports its understandings by mere superstitions and holds a supernatural force responsible for the development of ideas and humankind itself. So unsurprisingly, idealism talks about theorizing and cannot stand the test of experimentation which is the fourth characteristic of idealism. So the fourth characteristic of idealism would be that it emphasizes on theorizing and not experimentation.
It cannot stand the test of experimentation unlike a scientific theory which would give similar result no matter how many times it is repeated ceterus peribus. Idealism does not talk about the real existence of the ideas developed in the head of men.
The idea remains merely an idea in abstract which assumes within it the fundamental force responsible for the evolution of ideas. So, as far as, ideas remain abstract ideas and not tangible matter, idealism cannot stand parallel to the scientific approach.
For instance, when Idealsim holds a divine revelation responsible for a certain development, it would be useless to try to test the hypothesis. One can see that again it is the ideas which get mentioned and not the matter. And around this fundamental conception, other characteristics of Idealsim revolve.
In other words, ideas are primary and matter is secondary as far as the formulation Mohsin , 7 of the law of development is concerned. Idealism does not talk about the implementation of ideas in real terms. Here there are two possible scenarios in the case of the implementation of ideas.
They are discussed one by one here. According to the first scenario, one would claim that Idealism does not talk about the implementation of ideas in the first place. It presupposes the thrust of a fundamental principle behind any idea. And it assumes that it provides for the requisite force necessary for its implementation.
However, it leads to the claim that in such a case, Idealism makes its adherents helpless. For instance, if a community falls prey to an extreme famine, idealists would say that a divine force is at work and it cannot be catered to by material arrangements. And thus idealists would leave the situation as it is.
According to the second scenario, one may assume that idealism does talk about the implementation of ideas. And thus it cannot be said that idealism does not talk about the implementation of ideas per se rather it assumes that the ideas are inherently forceful enough that if they are comprehended in a right manner, there would remain no problem for their implementation.
Now we move on to the materialist tradition of Karl Marx. Like idealism, materialism provides another tool for understanding the development of human ideas and society etcetera. Karl Marx is the greatest proponent and founder of this conception. The paper turns to different features of materialism in the following part. Mohsin , 8 One basic feature of materialism, in contrast with Idealism, is that matter precedes idea in materialism. It means that it is the material conditions of men which are responsible for the existing state of affairs of men and provide for the actual driving force for their evolution.
It is the real existence of human beings that comes before ideas. For instance, subsistence, education and reproduction are the primary material needs of men. So matter precedes idea, that is, matter provides the starting point for our interpretation of society and the development of our world outlook.
It is the material needs and the way labor is done to achieve these needs which impact the ideas of men. Contrarily, idealism starts from the conception of idea which may cater to the material needs of life. Many questions are brought up when dealing with scientific materialism, and even the comparisons between materialism and idealism in the light of how change comes about, and how form gets into the world to begin with?
These questions are crucial when dealing with materialism, which needs to explain the emergence of the formation of matter, and idealism which explains how ideas substances even get into the world. For whitehead, the characteristics of life are absolute self-enjoyment. The ideal community is having relations with others, which is something both Whitehead and Marx believe. No one will willingly do something that is bad, if what is good is true.
The process of self-creation is the transformation of the potential into the actual, and the satisfaction of such a transformation includes self-enjoyment, which is what humans strive for. Self-enjoyment is a certain immediate individuality where each and every experience is unique, and done for its own sake no end in itself. When Whitehead talks about the human experience and how to conceive things that are real, he means that all of our experiences are completely subjective and that our bodies are associated with the presence of our minds, which is where Whitehead and Marx bump heads, if you will Whitehead, Nature Alive.
Purpose, also referred to as the AIM, limits the field of potential and is present throughout the past, present, and future experiences — they are present but not always achieved. The evidence for AIM or purpose, comes from bodily feelings. This can be directly related to Marx and his economic interpretation of history which actualizes the good.
Whitehead and Marx share their views of nature as a set of internal processes, rather than an externally set of substances, which is the most common theme shared between the two and their outlook of nature. Process and reality can be looked at as a way of becoming. Actual entities or occasions are what Whitehead describes as the realities of the world.
Prehensions are ways of understanding and analyzing the world. This is a process of an actual entity becoming itself by appropriating elements from other existing entities. This can be referred back to the process of becoming, which in the case, the becoming of an actual entity is because of the process of prehensions that take place. Whereas, Marx did believe that human history and the actualization of perfection are all habits of the body and the relations from body to body, which goes back to the possibilities of people being in direction relation with other people.
Both philosophers have unique ways of looking at human history and creativity, which was inspired by others as well, but in the end still have the potential of attempting to discover how things connect, develop, and progress in the world. New York: The Free Press, It is upon one's own belief on what life is and how it came to be.
One may choose the scientific theory or the Biblical theory. What is abortion? It is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo resulting in or caused by its death. It can either be spontaneous or induced. Abortion can be termed as moral give the circumstance or the cause of it. If it occurs because of complication so as to save the health of gravid pregnant female then it is viable. In a case where there is a miscarriage and the foetus has to be removed, then that also justifies the cause Kenny It can also be justified in case of rape of a young girl, who by all means can not carry the pregnancy to term due to undeveloped uterus, then in such a case, it should be allowed.
Euthanasia is the act or practice of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from an incurable illness. To measure the moral of something depends on ones beliefs and what is termed as acceptable to the society. Taking life of someone to remove them out of their misery is entirely on the people involved it is moral if the person gave the go ahead Locke God is the taker of life and it can be argued that when doctors try to preserve life of someone who is dying by putting machine to keep the hearts beating while in the real sense, the person would die, then they should let nature take its cause since it would happen anyway.And that nothing can be studied in isolation with no regard to its relation with the whole. Now, we turn to some of the fundamental features of idealism in the following section. The pencil that I am writing this essay with would not exist if I were not perceiving it with my senses, but in the dialogue between Hylus and Philonous Berkeley attempts to show things can and do exist apart from the human mind and our perception, but only because there is a mind in which all ideas are perceived or a deity that creates perception in the human mind, either way its God. It cannot stand the test of experimentation unlike a scientific theory which would give similar result no matter how many times it is repeated ceterus peribus. By nature death is an once-in-a-lifetime ordeal, which allows
According to this doctrine, matter is the ultimate reality, and the phenomenon of consciousness is explained by physiochemical changes in the nervous system. Everything is connected to everything through an environment. Idealism would say No, because perception and awareness of the world entirely exist within our mind and can not be separated, hence nothing exists outside the mind. The aim of this paper is not to delve into the debate of metaphysics and dialectics. Actual entities or occasions are what Whitehead describes as the realities of the world.
Mohsin , 11 Works Cited Barbalet, J. The ideas which provide the basis of interpretation cannot be tested or verified. In close association with the agnostics is the theory of knowledge devised by the German philosopher Kant.
Process and reality is a concept that makes the world what it is according to Whitehead. The third important feature of idealism is that it holds a conception of a fundamental principle behind evolution. By this reasoning Heraclitus dissolved all fixed states of being into the process of perpetual becoming in which every object enters existence, stays for a while and then passes away. One was equivalent to being; the other to not being. He taught that things in themselves existed as objective realities. However, if the people do labor to fulfill their material needs without the fear of any mysterious and uncontrollable force, it will give them confidence.
The world of matter is the real world. So dialectics does away with Mohsin , 4 metaphysics with the rise of Hegelian philosophy but the greatest criticism balanced against Hegel and his philosophy is that the revolution of idealist thoughts operated only in the realm of pure thought.
It will take more than one idea to bring the crisis to an end and stabilize the housing market. It cannot stand the test of experimentation unlike a scientific theory which would give similar result no matter how many times it is repeated ceterus peribus. Materialist philosophy emphasizes that its core idea is neither idea nor idealism, but rather it is physical world. They provide different interpretations of the same question.